The design and construction of “long and deep” tunnels, i.e. tunnels under mountains, characterised by either considerable length and/or overburden, represent a considerable challenge. The scope of this book is not to instruct how to design and construct such tunnels but to share a method to identify the potential hazards related to the process of designing and constructing long and deep tunnels, to produce a relevant comprehensive analysis and listing, to quantify the probability and consequences, and to design proper mitigation measures and countermeasures.
The design, developed using probabilistic methods, is verified during execution by means of the so called Plan for Advance of the Tunnel (PAT) method, which allows adapting the design and control parameters of the future stretches of the tunnel to the results of the stretches already finished, using the monitoring data base. Numerous criteria are given to identify the key parameters, necessary for the PAT procedure. Best practices of excavation management with the help of real time monitoring and control are also provided. Furthermore cost and time evaluation systems are analysed. Finally, contractual aspects related to construction by contract are investigated, for best development and application of models more appropriate for tunnelling-construction contracts.
The work will be of interest to practising engineers, designers, consultants and students in mining, underground, tunnelling, transportation and construction engineering, as well as to foundation and geological engineers, urban planners/developers and architects.